UOB Woodlands Branch

900 South Woodlands Drive #01-06 Woodlands Civic Centre Singapore 730900
900 South Woodlands Drive Singapore 730900 SG

United Overseas Bank Limited (typically known as UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organisation headquartered in Singapore, with branches mostly found in the majority of Southeast Asian countries.UOB provides corporate and business banking services, personal financial services, private banking and other asset management services, in addition to corporate finance, endeavor investment, insurance coverage, and capital services. It has 68 branches in Singapore and a network of more than 500 workplaces in 19 nations and territories in Asia Pacific, Western Europe and The United States and Canada

Recommendation With regards to Getting Personal Loans In Singapore

If you are planning to take a significant loan, do not ever take out a individual loan from a bank a couple of months prior to the major loan. This will impact you.

A crucial aspect is your DSR (Debt Servicing Ratio)when you take a bank loan for a car or house. This measures what portion of your earnings can go into paying back the housing or vehicle loan, including other overheads (e.g. payment for other individual loans).

A DSR of 50% indicates your loan repayments, plus repayments of any other loans you have, cannot surpass 50% of your income.Just for referral, a lot of banks allow 40% DSR for a home, and 30% DSR for a car.

Loans Get Cheaper As the Loan Gets More Specific – So when it comes to getting loans, be as specific as you can. Do not take a individual loan to refurbish your home, not when there’s a renovation loan package. Don’t take a personal loan to spend for your education, when there’s an education loan bundle.

In order to motivate you, particular loan bundles typically have lower interest rates. Individual loans tend to charge interest of about 6% to 8%, whereas specific loans (renovation loans, education loans, etc).

A lot of individual loans are unsecured. As in, there’s no security behind them. And considering that the issuing banks have no security, they’ll compensate by jacking up rate of interest.

That suggests you must never ever take a personal loan without knowledge of exactly when and how you’ll pay it back.

Do not utilize individual loans as alternative business loans. Do not use them to trade on Forex. Don’t use them to purchase high threat equities. You should only take a individual loan to relieve capital concerns.

900 South Woodlands Drive #02-01 Woodlands Civic Centre Singapore 730900 0.01 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
1 Woodlands Square #01-16 Causeway Point Singapore 738099 0.14 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted monetar...
1 Woodlands Square, #B1-26 Causeway Point Singapore 738099 0.14 km
DBS Bank Ltd is a multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Marin...
303 Woodlands St 31 #01-159/161 Singapore 730303 1.49 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed finan...
Blk 303 Woodlands Street 31 #01-191 Singapore 730303 1.49 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a major public bank offering inexpensive banking services ...
Blk 2a Woodlands Centre Road #01-134 Singapore 731002 1.93 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a significant public bank offering low-cost banking servic...
SENOKO DRIVE SINGAPORE 758249 3.8 km
We are an professional and licensed money lender. If its quick cash loan that you require, no mat...
2 Sembawang Crescent #01-02 Canberra Community Club Singapore 757632 3.82 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a major public bank offering affordable banking services t...
30 Sembawang Drive #02-05 Sun Plaza Singapore 757713 3.95 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly listed financ...
Blk 101 Yishun Avenue 5 #01-05 Singapore 760101 4.58 km
Established on January 1, 1877 as the Post Workplace Savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of th...
930 Yishun Avenue 2 #01-41/42/43 Northpoint Shopping Centre Singapore 769098 5.48 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (typically known as UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking orga...
Blk 290 Yishun Street 22 #01-401 Singapore 760290 5.49 km
Founded on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank became part of the Po...
930 Yishun Ave 2 #B1-37/38/39 Northpoint Shopping Centre Singapore 769098 5.52 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed monet...
1 Segar Road #01-06 Zhenghua Community Club Singapore 677738 5.64 km
POSB Bank (or merely referred to as POSB) is a Singaporean bank offering consumer banking service...
BLK 846 YISHUN RING ROAD SINGAPORE 760846 5.69 km
we endeavor to achieve each and every one of our customers’ wants and needs. We are an mone...
Blk 926 Yishun Central 1 #01-183 Singapore 760926 5.74 km
Founded on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank belonged to the Posta...
30 Yishun Street 81 #01-04 Nee Soon South Community Club Singapore 768455 5.84 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a significant public bank offering low-cost banking servic...
61 Choa Chu Kang Drive #01-04 Yew Tee MRT Station Singapore 689715 6.04 km
Based on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank belonged to the Postal ...
257 Bangkit Rd #01-51/55 Singapore 670257 6.46 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed monet...
Blk 260 Bangkit Road #01-15 Singapore 670260 6.52 km
POSB Bank (or simply called POSB) is a Singaporean bank offering consumer banking services and is...
1 Jelebu Road #02-02 Bukit Panjang Plaza Singapore 6.65 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (typically known as UOB) is a Singaporean international banking orga...
304 Choa Chu Kang Ave 4 #01-663 Singapore 680304 7.42 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly listed moneta...
Blk 304 Choa Chu Kang Avenue 4 #01-657/659 Singapore 680304 7.42 km
DBS Bank Ltd is a multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Marin...
Blk 629 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 4 #01-1018 Singapore 560629 8.48 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a major public bank offering low-cost banking services to ...
629 Ang Mo Kio Ave 4 #01-1006/1008/1010 Singapore 560629 8.48 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted financi...
163 ANG MO KIO AVE 4 SINGAPORE 560163 8.89 km
We feel that each customer relationship is very crucial when it comes to operating in this indust...
128 ANG MO KIO AVENUE 3 SINGAPORE 560128 9.53 km
We have been Singapore’s leading licensed and most trusted moneylender. We offer a comprehe...
726 ANG MO KIO AVENUE 6 SINGAPORE 560726 9.59 km
We offer quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Whether it’s medical loan, educat...
Blk 712a Ang Mo Kio Avenue 6 #01-4066 Singapore 560712 9.74 km
Based on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of the Postal ...
711 ANG MO KIO AVENUE 8 SINGAPORE 560711 9.81 km
Times are challenging in Singapore and consumers and businessowners are finding it harder to get ...
711 ANG MO KIO AVENUE 8 SINGAPORE 560711 9.81 km
We are an professional and licensed money lender. If its quick personal loan that you require, an...
BLK 709 ANG MO KIO AVENUE 8 SINGAPORE 560709 9.81 km
We endeavor to achieve each and every one of our customers’ wants and needs. We are an lice...
ANG MO KIO AVENUE 8 SINGAPORE 560705 9.86 km
Times are challenging in Singapore and consumers and businessowners are finding it harder to acce...
ANG MO KIO SINGAPORE 560704 9.86 km
We are determined to provide competitive loan for Singaporeans and expats in Singapore. As a lice...
53 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 #B1-34 AMK Hub Singapore 569933 9.97 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (commonly known as UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organ...
53 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 #B1-32/33 AMK Hub Singapore 569933 9.99 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly listed moneta...
2 Ang Mo Kio Drive Blk A #01-10 Singapore 567720 10 km
Established on January 1, 1877 as the Post Workplace Cost savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part ...
53 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 #B1-01 AMK Hub Singapore 569933 10.02 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
53 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 #03-01/27 AMK Hub Singapore 569933 10.03 km
DBS Bank Ltd is a multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Marin...
301 Upper Thomson Road #01-45 Thomson Plaza Singapore 574408 10.19 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
Blk 634 Bukit Batok Central #01-104/106 Singapore 650634 10.24 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (commonly referred to as UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking...
634 Bukit Batok Central #01-108 Singapore 650634 10.24 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly listed financ...
Blk 637 Bukit Batok Central #01-16 Singapore 650637 10.24 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted monetar...
170 UPPER BUKIT TIMAH ROAD BUKIT TIMAH SHOPPING CENTRE SINGAPORE 588179 10.26 km
We offer quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Regardless of whether it’s medica...
Blk 636 Bukit Batok Central #01-02/04 Singapore 650636 10.26 km
Established on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of the P...
170 Upper Bukit Timah Rd #01-01 Bukit Timah Shopping Centre Singapore 588179 10.28 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly listed financ...
148 Upper Bukit Timah Road #01-01 UOB Centre Singapore 588178 10.33 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (typically referred to as UOB) is a Singaporean international bankin...
140 UPPER BUKIT TIMAH ROAD BEAUTY WORLD PLAZA SINGAPORE 588176 10.35 km
We offer quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Whether it’s medical loan, educat...
SIN MING ROAD AMTECH BUILDING SINGAPORE 575625 10.4 km
We provide quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Whether it’s medical loan, educ...
251-253 Upper Thomson Road Singapore 574376 10.47 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (frequently called UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organ...
96 JALAN JURONG KECHIL SINGAPORE 598599 10.62 km
For years, we have been providing reasonable loan packages to those that needs emergency funds. A...
1 Jalan Anak Bukit #01-19/20 Bukit Timah Plaza Singapore 588996 10.73 km
DBS Bank Ltd is a multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Marin...
Blk 153 Bukit Batok West Street 11 #01-290/292 Singapore 650153 10.81 km
Founded on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank became part of the Po...
181 Upper Thomson Road Singapore 574331 10.85 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly noted financ...
33 Sengkang West Avenue #01-49/50/51/52/53 Seletar Mall Singapore 797653 11.07 km
POSB Bank (or just referred to as POSB) is a Singaporean bank offering customer banking services ...
827 Bukit Timah Road Singapore 279886 11.54 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed finan...
9 Bishan Place #01-14 Junction 8 Shopping Centre Singapore 579837 11.65 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
1 Maju Avenue #01-12/13/14/15 Serangoon Garden Village Singapore 556679 11.68 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
86/88 Serangoon Garden Way Singapore 555982 11.72 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly noted financ...
69 Serangoon Garden Way Singapore 555965 11.79 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (commonly understood as UOB) is a Singaporean international banking ...
Blk 501 Bishan Street 11 #01-368/370 Singapore 570501 11.86 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (frequently called UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organ...
501 Bishan St 11 #01-372/374 Singapore 570501 11.86 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly listed financ...
153 SERANGOON NORTH AVENUE 1 SINGAPORE 550153 11.94 km
For years, we have been rendering competitive loan packages to those that needs emergency funds. ...
Blk 501 Jurong West Street 51 #01-279/281 Singapore 640501 12.08 km
POSB Bank (or merely known as POSB) is a Singaporean bank offering consumer banking services and ...
502 Jurong West Ave 1 #01-821 Singapore 640502 12.1 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed monet...
3 Gateway Drive #04-36 Westgate Singapore 608532 12.19 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
21 Jurong Gateway Road #01-03 CPF Jurong Building Singapore 608546 12.28 km
POSB Bank (or merely referred to as POSB) is a Singaporean bank offering customer banking service...
50 Jurong Gateway Road #02-15 Jem Singapore 608549 12.3 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (frequently called UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organ...
50 Jurong Gateway Road #B1-18 Jem Singapore 608549 12.31 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed finan...
131 JURONG GATEWAY ROAD SINGAPORE 600131 12.32 km
We provide quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Regardlessif it’s medical loan,...
Blk 107 Toa Payoh Lorong 1 #01-266 Singapore 310107 12.4 km
Based on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank belonged to the Postal ...
BLK 124 LORONG 1 TOA PAYOH SINGAPORE 310124 12.48 km
We provide quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Regardless of whether it’s medi...
587 Bukit Timah Road #02-25/26/27/28 Coronation 12.62 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (commonly referred to as UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking...
25 Boon Lay Place Singapore 649886 12.74 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (commonly known as UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organ...
10 Boon Lay Place #01-06 Boon Lay Community Club Singapore 649882 12.76 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a significant public bank offering low-cost banking servic...
1 Sengkang Square #02-04 Compass One Singapore 545078 12.92 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted monetar...
1 Sengkang Square #02-05/06 Compass One Mall Singapore 545078 12.95 km
Based on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of the Postal ...
150 LORONG 1 TOA PAYOH SINGAPORE 310150 12.96 km
We feel that every customer relationship is very crucial when it comes to working in this industr...
Blk 254 Serangoon Central Drive #01-203 Singapore 550254 13 km
POSB Bank (or merely known as POSB) is a Singaporean bank offering customer banking services and ...
Blk 520 Toa Payoh Lorong 6 #02-51 Singapore 310520 13.18 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (commonly known as UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organ...
520 Lorong 6 Toa Payoh #02-52/53 Singapore 310520 13.18 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted financi...
83 Punggol Central #01-01 Waterway Point Singapore 828761 13.19 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (frequently referred to as UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banki...
83 Punggol Central #01-13 Waterway Point Singapore 828761 13.19 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted financi...
BLK 178 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310178 13.2 km
We feel that every customer relationship is extremely crucial when it comes to working in this in...
83 Punggol Central #01-15 Singapore 828761 13.22 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a major public bank offering low-priced banking services t...
183 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310183 13.26 km
There are personalised loan services readily available to each customer. We provide a manageable ...
520 Toa Payoh Lorong 6 #02-50 Hdb Hub Singapore 310520 13.33 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
480 Toa Payoh Lorong 6 #01-09 Hdb Hub Singapore 310480 13.34 km
Based on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of the Postal ...
185 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310185 13.37 km
We have invested profoundly in incredibly trained workforce and this differentiate us from other ...
BLK 185 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310185 13.37 km
We are determined to provide sensibly priced loan for Singaporeans and foreigners in Singapore. A...
185 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310185 13.37 km
Times are challenging in Singapore and consumers and businessowners are finding it harder to gain...
185 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310185 13.37 km
We offer quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Regardlessif it’s medical loan, e...
185 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310185 13.37 km
We are determined to offer competitive loan for Singaporeans and foreigners in Singapore. As a li...
23 Serangoon Central #B2-28/29 Singapore 556083 13.38 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed finan...
186 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310186 13.39 km
There are customised loan services available to each customer. We provide a flexible repayment sc...
186 TOA PAYOH CENTRAL SINGAPORE 310186 13.39 km
There are personalised loan services easily available to each customer. We offer a flexible repay...
23 Serangoon Central #01-52/53 nex Singapore 556083 13.44 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (commonly called UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking organis...
BLK 450 LORONG 6 TOA PAYOH HERSING CENTRE SINGAPORE 319394 13.45 km
For years, we have been delivering reasonable loan packages to those who need emergency funds. As...
3155 Commonwealth Avenue West #04-52/55 The Clementi Mall Singapore 129588 13.58 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed monet...
756 UPPER SERANGOON ROAD UPPER SERANGOON SHOPPING CENTRE SINGAPORE 534626 13.66 km
we make every effort to achieve each and every one of our customers’ wants and needs. We ar...
Blk 450 Clementi Avenue 3 #01-287/289 Singapore 120450 13.71 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (typically known as UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking orga...
Blk 450 Clementi Avenue 3 #01-293/295 Singapore 120450 13.71 km
DBS Bank Ltd is a multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Marin...
Blk 449 Clementi Avenue 3 #01-243 Singapore 120449 13.73 km
Founded on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank became part of the Po...
80 Hougang Central #01-01 Hougang MRT Station Singapore 538758 13.75 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (typically called UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking organi...
1 Jurong West Central 2 #B1-31/32/33/46 Jurong Point Shopping Centre Singapore 648886 13.77 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly noted financ...
Blk 205 Hougang Street 21 #03-00 Heartland Mall Singapore 530205 13.78 km
Prior to its acquisition, the bank was a significant public bank offering affordable banking serv...
90 Hougang Ave 10 #01-01/05 Hougang Mall Singapore 538766 13.78 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted monetar...
249 Holland Ave Singapore 278980 13.8 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly noted financi...
Blk 204 Hougang Street 21 #01-107/111 Singapore 530204 13.82 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
1 Jurong West Central 2 #01-16C Jurong Point Shopping Centre Singapore 648886 13.82 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (typically called UOB) is a Singaporean international banking organi...
1 Jurong West Central 2 #B1-20 Jurong Point Shopping Centre Singapore 648886 13.87 km
Established on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Cost savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of ...
211 Holland Avenue #01-12 Holland Road Shopping Centre Singapore 278967 13.89 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (typically known as UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking orga...
Blk 118 Rivervale Drive #01-21 Rivervale Plaza Singapore 540118 13.93 km
Founded on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of the Posta...
Blk 805 Hougang Central #01-102/104 Singapore 530805 13.94 km
Based on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank belonged to the Postal ...
Raffles Holland V , 118 Holland Avenue #02-05 Singapore 278997 13.94 km
DBS Bank Ltd is a multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Marin...
HOUGANG STREET 21 SINGAPORE 530210 13.96 km
We provide quick cash through personal loan or payday loan. Regardless of whether it’s medi...
63 Jurong West Central 3 #B1-47/48/49/50 Jurong Point Shopping Centre Singapore 648331 13.96 km
DBS Bank Ltd is a global banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Marina Bay, ...
211 Hougang St 21 #01-295 Singapore 530211 14 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed finan...
500 Dover Road Singapore Polytechnic, Food Court 5 (FC512) Singapore 139651 14.01 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is a publicly listed finan...
Blk 43 Holland Drive, #01-55 Singapore 270043 14.17 km
DBS Bank Ltd is an international banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Mari...
Blk 43 Holland Drive #01-53 Singapore 270043 14.17 km
Founded on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of the Posta...
10 Sinaran Drive #02-19/20 Square 2 Singapore 307506 14.2 km
Founded on January 1, 1877 as the Post Workplace Cost savings Bank (POSB), the bank was part of t...
360 Balestier Road #01-14/15 Shaw Plaza - Twin Heights Singapore 329783 14.22 km
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, abbreviated as OCBC Bank, is an openly listed financ...
5 JALAN KILANG BARAT PETRO CENTRE SINGAPORE 159349 14.28 km
We have been Singapore’s leading licensed and most trusted moneylender. We offer a widespre...
238A Thomson Road #01-38 Novena Square Singapore 307685 14.39 km
United Overseas Bank Limited (frequently called UOB) is a Singaporean multinational banking organ...
279 BALESTIER ROAD BALESTIER POINT SINGAPORE 329727 14.43 km
For years, we have been providing reasonable loan packages to those looking for emergency funds. ...
6 Potong Pasir Ave 2 #01-02, Potong Pasir Community Centre Singapore 358361 14.47 km
Based on January 1, 1877 as the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), the bank became part of the Post...
6 Potong Pasir Ave 2 #01-02, Potong Pasir Community Centre Singapore 358361 14.47 km
POSB Bank (or merely known as POSB) is a Singaporean bank offering consumer banking services and ...